Cultur de Europa

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La cultur de Europa es fundida en la arte, arciteta, musica, leteratur e filosofia cual es orijinal de la rejion european[1] e on refere frecuente a lo como sua "erita cultural comun"[2].

Elementos[edita | edita la fonte]

Car la grande numero de perspetivas cual pote es elejeda en la sujeto, lo es nonposible formi un conseti singular de la cultur european.[3]. An tal, on ave elementos xef cual on acorda cual formi un funda cultural de la Europa moderna[4]. Un lista de esta elementos donada per K. Bochmann inclui[5]:

  • Un erita spirital e cultural comun derivada de la anticia elinica-roman, la cristianisme, la Renase e sua umanisme, la pensa political de la Lumina e la Revolui Franses, e la developa de la Modernia, incluinte tota tipos de sosialisme;[6]
  • Un cultur material rica e dinamica cual ia estende a otra continentes como resulta de industri e colonialism durante la "Grande Diverje";[6]
  • Un conseta spesifada de la individua espresada per la esiste de un legalia cual garantia la diretos umana e la libria de la individuas;[6]
  • Un varia de statos con ordes political diferente, cual es condenada a vive juntada en un forma u otra;[6]
  • Respeta per la poplas, statos e nasiones estra Europa.[6]

La conseta de cultur european es jeneral liada a la defini clasica de la mundo oeste. En esta defini, la cultur ueste es la colie de prinsipes leteratural, siensal, political, artal e filosofal cual separa Europa de otra sivilias.

La premio Nobel de leteratur Thomas Stearns Eliot en sua libro de 1948 Notes Towards the Definition of Culture, ia reconose la influe cristian sur la cultur european[7]:

Me parla sur la tradision comun de cristianisme cual ia fa ce Europa deveni lo cual lo es, e sur la elementos cultural comun cual esta cristianisme comun ia trae. Si Asia ta es convertida oji, lo no ta causa ce lo deveni un parte de Europa. Lo es en cristianisme ce la leges de Europa ia es radisida, a min asta resente. Lo es de la contesto de cristianisme cual tota de nos pensas deriva sua sinifia. Un european individua pota no crede ce la fide de cristianisme es vera, ma ancora tota de lo cual el dise, e crea, e fa, va leva de sua erita de la cultur cristian, e depende de acel cultur per sua sinifia. Sola un cultur cristian ia pote produi un Voltaire o un Nietzsche. Me no crede ce la cultur de Europa ta pote survive la desapare completa de cristianisme.... La mundo ueste ave sua unia en esta erita, en cristianisme, e en la sivilia antica de Elas, Roma, e Israel, de cual, tra du mil anios de cristianisme, nos calcula nosa desende.[nota 1]

Arte[edita | edita la fonte]

Article xef: Arte european
Leonardo da Vinci. Entre sua obras on trova la Mona Lisa e La Ultima Come de Sera. La sola obra plu famosa es La Crea de Adan par Michelangelo.

Istoria[edita | edita la fonte]

La arte roman ia es influeda par Elas e pote es videda con un desendente de la sculta e la depinta elinica, mas ia es multe influeda par la arte etrusca de Italia. Sculta ia es cisa considerada la forma de arte plu importante par la romanes, ma la depinta de figures ance ia es importante regardada bon.

Depinta[edita | edita la fonte]

Article xef: Depinta european

La depinta plu vea conoseda es locada en la cava El Castillo (Espania), plu vea ca 40 800 anios[8]. La istoria de la depinta ueste representa un tradision continuante de la Anticia. Asta media la sentenio 19, ia es consernada con la manera de produi e la representa clasica e pos otra formas plu astrata e consetal ia es favoreda.

Sculta[edita | edita la fonte]

Article xef: Sculta

La prima sculta european representa un fem, e ave 35 000 anios. Vide ance sculta clasica, Sculta de Elas antica, Arte gotica, Renase, Mannerist, Baroca, Neoclassicism, Modernism, Postminimalism, found art, Postmodern art, arte consetal.

Musica[edita | edita la fonte]

  1. Some major UK acts include Tears for Fears, The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, Led Zeppelin, Pink Floyd, Queen, Elton John, David Bowie, Deep Purple, Sex Pistols, Eric Clapton, The Clash, Van Morrison, Dire Straits, The Police, Fleetwood Mac, Genesis, George Michael, Pet Shop Boys, Phil Collins, Rod Stewart, The Who, Eurythmics, Dusty Springfield, The Cure, Black Sabbath, Iron Maiden, Judas Priest, Def Leppard, Duran Duran, Oasis, Radiohead, Coldplay, Mumford & Sons, The Smiths, Muse, Gorillaz, Bonnie Tyler, Seal, Elvis Costello, Bee Gees, Spice Girls, Depeche Mode, The Kinks, The Animals, Motörhead, UB40, One Direction, Cheryl Cole, Adele, Amy Winehouse;
  2. U2, Thin Lizzy, The Pogues, The Script, The Undertones, Sinéad O'Connor (Ireland),
  3. Kraftwerk, Can, Scorpions, Nina Hagen, Trio, Rammstein, Modern Talking, James Last, Paul Kalkbrenner, Felix Jaehn, Kay One, Alex C, Alle Farben, Eko Fresh, Bausa, Capital Bra, Kitsch krieg, Robin Schulz, Bushido, Namika, Scooter, MoTrip, Zedd, Bonez MC, Gzuz (Germany),
  4. ABBA, The Cardigans, The Hives, Roxette, Swedish House Mafia, Avicii, Icona Pop, Zara Larsson (Sweden),
  5. Alan Walker, Madcon, Sigrid, a-ha (Norway),
  6. Björk, Sigur Rós (Iceland),
  7. Lepa Brena, Ceca Ražnatović, Jelena Karleuša, Seka Aleksić, Indira Radić, Dragana Mirković (Serbia),
  8. Giorgio Moroder, Andrea Bocelli, Benny Benassi, The Bloody Beetroots, Mina, Adriano Celentano, Patty Pravo, Toto Cutugno, Laura Pausini, Eros Ramazzotti, Zucchero Fornaciari, Domenico Modugno, Lucio Battisti, Giorgia, Sabrina Salerno, Ivana Spagna, Eiffel 65, Alexia, Francesco Gabbani, J-ax, Gue Pequeno, Sfera Ebbasta (Italy),
  9. Soulwax, dEUS, Absynthe Minded, The Black Box Revelation, Selah Sue, Girls in Hawaii, Stromae, (Belgium),
  10. Luis Eduardo Aute, Julio Iglesias, The Pinker Tones, Lluis Llach, Enrique Iglesias (Spain),
  11. Édith Piaf, Serge Gainsbourg, Daft Punk, David Guetta, Justice, Bob Sinclar, Martin Solveig, Étienne de Crécy, Yelle, Phoenix, Air, M83, Alizée, C2C, Jean Michel Jarre, Black M, Kenji Girac (France),
  12. Nana Mouskouri, Celine Dion (Greece/France), Helena Paparizou (Greece),
  13. Kati Wolf (Hungary),
  14. Timati, Feduk, T.A.T.u., Gorky Park, Allj, Algie & Kravtsov (Russia),
  15. Sitek, Ewelina Lisowska, Sokół, Tede, Margaret, Donatan, C-BooL, Doda (Poland),
  16. Rasmus Seebach, The Raveonettes, MQ, Agnes Obel, WhoMadeWho (Denmark),
  17. The Legendary Tigerman, The Gift (Portugal),
  18. Alexandra Stan, Inna, Edward Maya, Morandi, Sandu Ciorba (Romania),
  19. HIM, The Rasmus, Nightwish, Alma, Lordi (Finland),
  20. The Nits, Golden Earring, zZz, Nicky Romero, Armin van Buuren, Fedde le Grand, Tiësto, Hardwell, Martin Garrix, Afrojack (Netherlands).


Main festivals includes: Sanremo Music Festival, Coca-Cola Summer Festival (Italy), Glastonbury, Reading and Leeds Festivals, Isle of Wight Festival, T in the Park (UK), Fête de la Musique, Eurockéennes, Vieilles Charrues Festival, Hellfest (France), Wacken (Germany), Festival Internacional de Benicàssim, Primavera Sound (Spain), Exit Festival (Serbia), Sziget Festival (Hungary), Roskilde Festival (Denmark), Rock Werchter, Tomorrowland (Belgium) & Eurovision (music competition between European countries). Domino Recording Company, Bertelsmann Music Group, PolyGram, EMI, Universal Music Group (Subsidiary of French company Vivendi) are the largest European music companies.

Arciteta[edita | edita la fonte]

Article xef: Istoria de arciteta

Arciteta neolitica: Naseda en la este, la arciteta de la neolitica ia estende a Europa. La cultures neolitica mediteranean de Malta ia adora en templos megalitica. En Europa, casas construida de acasia ia es construida e ance tombas detaliosa per la mores. Esta tombas es multe numerosa en Er, do multe tombas esiste oji. La poplas neolitica ia construi grande tumulos.

Vide ance: arciteta de Elas clasica, arciteta de Roma antica, arciteta medieval, arciteta de la Renase, arciteta baroca.

Leteratur[edita | edita la fonte]

Europa ia produi alga de la plu importante scrivores de la istoria:

See Western art history, dance, drama, and circus arts.

Filma[edita | edita la fonte]

Article xef: Sinema european
Sir Alfred Hitchcock, often regarded the greatest British filmmaker of all time.[10]

Antoine Lumière realized, on 28 December 1895, the first projection, with the Cinematograph, in Paris.[11] Philippe Binant realized, on 2 February 2000, the first digital cinema projection in Europe, with the DLP CINEMA technology developed by Texas Instruments, in Paris.[12] In 1897, Georges Méliès established the first cinema studio on a rooftop property in Montreuil, near Paris. Some notable European film movements include German Expressionism, Italian neorealism, French New Wave, Polish Film School, New German Cinema, Portuguese Cinema Novo, Czechoslovak New Wave, Dogme 95, New French Extremity, and Romanian New Wave. The cinema of Europe has its own awards, the European Film Awards. Main festivals : Cannes Film Festival (France), Berlin International Film Festival (Germany). The Venice Film Festival (Italy) or Mostra Internazionale d'Arte Cinematografica di Venezia, is the oldest film festival in the world.

Siensa[edita | edita la fonte]

Article xef: Istoria de siensa
  • CERN: La Organiza European per Rexerca Nucleal es la loca de nase de la WWW (la ueb) e la loca de la macina la plu grande en la mundo: la Colidador Grande de Hadrones. Lo es la laboreria la plu grande de la fisica de particulas, locada en la suburbes norde-ueste de Geneve sur la frontera entre Frans e Suiz, instituida en 1954. En novembre de 2010, la colides otenida ia pote jenera la temperatures e densias la plu alta produida en un esperimenta a cualce ves, creante un "Buma Grande" miniatur plu calda par milion veses ca la sentro de la sol.[13]
  • ESA : The European Space Agency's space flight program includes human spaceflight, mainly through the participation in the International Space Station program, the launch and operations of unmanned exploration missions to other planets and the Moon, Earth observations, science, telecommunication as well as maintaining a major spaceport, the Guiana Space Centre at Kourou, French Guiana and designing launch vehicles. The main European launch vehicle Ariane 5 is operated through Arianespace with ESA sharing in the costs of launching and further developing this launch vehicle. On 12 November 2014, ESA's Philae probe achieved the first-ever soft landing on a comet.

Europa ia produi alga de la plu importante siensistes e inteletosas de la istoria.

Filosofia[edita | edita la fonte]

European philosophy is a predominant strand of philosophy globally, and is central to philosophical enquiry in America and most other parts of the world which have fallen under its influence.

The Greek schools of philosophy in antiquity provide the basis of philosophical discourse that extends to today. Christian thought had a huge influence on many fields of European philosophy (as European philosophy has been on Christian thought too), sometimes as a reaction.

Perhaps one of the most important single philosophical periods since the classical era were the Renaissance, the Age of Reason and the Age of Enlightenment. There are many disputes as to its value and even its timescale. What is indisputable is that the tenets of reason and rational discourse owe much to René Descartes, John Locke and others working at the time.

Other important European philosophical strands include: Analytic philosophy, Anarchism, Christian Democracy, Communism, Conservatism, Constructionism, Deconstructionism, Empiricism, Epicureanism, Existentialism, Fascism, Humanism, Idealism, Internationalism, Liberalism, Logical positivism, Marxism, Materialism, Monarchism, Nationalism, Perspectivism, Platonism, Positivism, Postmodernism, Protestantism, Rationalism, Relativism, Republicanism, Romanticism, Scepticism, Scholasticism, Social Democracy, Socialism, Stoicism, Structuralism, Thomism, Utilitarianism, Spenglerism.

Linguas[edita | edita la fonte]

Distribui de la ramos de la linguas indoeuropean en Eurasia:

De la milenio un aec, Europa ia es dominada par poplas indoeuropean, ci ia parla varia linguas ma unida par cualis comun.

A en la linguas indoeuropean, de la milenio 1 aec on pote distingui la plu parte de la grupos moderna: la linguas italica, germanica, slavica, celta, baltica e elinica e xcip. Entre la poplas moderna de Europa on ave ance parlores de linguas nonindoeuropean como euscara, suomi, esti e magiar ma euscara es la sola lingua preindoeuropean parlada oji.

De la introdui de scrive en Europa, la linguas european ia es scriveda usante alfabetas derivada de la alfabeta fenisia. Esta alfabetas inclui la alfabeta elinca, la latina o la cirilica entre otras. En alga paises, spesial a norde e este de la continente, la varias local de la alfabeta latina ave sinietas per marca la sonas local.

En la limitas este e sude on ave ance la alfabeta jorjian e la alfabeta haieren.

Relijio[edita | edita la fonte]

Article xef: Relijio en Europa

La relijios indo-european ia es: mitolojias uralica, politeisme celta, paganisme germanica, relijio elinica antica, relijio etrusca e mitolojia slavica.

La Eurobarometer Poll 2005[14] ia trova ce, per promedia, la 52% de la sitadanes de la Uni European afirma cual crede en Dio, 27% crede ce on ave un tipo de spirito en cuando 18% no crede en alga spirito o Dio. 3% ia refusa responde.

Seguente sondas nova sur Relijiosia en la Uni European en 2012 para la Eurobarometre, cristianisme es la relijo plu grande en la Uni European con 72% de la sitadanes de la UE. Agnosticas es un 16% e ateistes un 7%. Muslimes es un 2%.[15]

Christianity has been the dominant religion shaping European culture for at least the last 1700 years.[16][17][18][19][20] Modern philosophical thought has very much been influenced by Christian philosophers such as St Thomas Aquinas and Erasmus. And throughout most of its history, Europe has been nearly equivalent to Christian culture,[21] The Christian culture was the predominant force in western civilization, guiding the course of philosophy, art, and science.[22][23] The notion of "Europe" and the "Western World" has been intimately connected with the concept of "Christianity and Christendom" many even attribute Christianity for being the link that created a unified European identity.[24]

The most popular religions of Europe are the following (by dominant religion):

There are significant Catholic minorities in the Netherlands,[41] southern Germany,[42] Switzerland, the Czech Republic,[43] western and central Belarus, western Ukraine,[44] Hungarian-speaking Romania, Albania, parts of Russia, the Latgale region of Latvia, The Netherlands, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, England (UK), Scotland (UK),[45] and Wales (UK),[46] and indeed small minorities in most of the other European countries.

Cosina[edita | edita la fonte]

Article xef: Cosina de Europa

La cosinas de europa ueste es diversa, an si on ave cualis comun cual distingue la cosina de Europa de la de paises asian. comparada con la cultures asian, carne es plu importante e apare en un cuantia plu grande. Staca es un plato comun tra la Ueste. La fonte xef de amidon es la pan fada con farina blanca , junta a pasta, bales de pasta e pastas dulse, an si la patata ia deveni un amidon xef en la dieta de la europeanes e sua diaspora pos la colini european de America.

Veste[edita | edita la fonte]

Article xef: Istoria de la veste

The earliest definite examples of needles originate from the Solutrean culture, which existed in France and Spain from 19,000 BC to 15,000 BC. The earliest dyed flax fibers have been found in a cave the Republic of Georgia and date back to 36,000 BP. See Clothing in ancient Rome, 1100–1200 in fashion, 1200–1300 in fashion, 1300–1400 in fashion, 1400–1500 in fashion, 1500–1550 in fashion, 1550–1600 in fashion, 1600–1650 in fashion, 1650–1700 in fashion, Textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution.

Sporte[edita | edita la fonte]

Article xef: Sport in Europe

La influi de Europe en la sporte es enorme. Indeed, it is difficult to think of a modern sport, apart from basketball and related sports, that does not have its origins in Europe. Sportes european inclui:

In addition, Europe has numerous national or regional sports which do not command a large international following outside of emigrant groups. These include:

Some sporting organisations hold European Championships.

Some sport competitions feature a European team gathering athletes from different European countries. These teams use the European flag as an emblem. The most famous of these competitions is the Ryder Cup in golf Model:Citation needed.

Capitales de Cultur[edita | edita la fonte]

Each year since 1985 one or more cities across Europe are chosen as European Capital of Culture. Here are the past and future capitals:

  • 1985: Athens
  • 1986: Florence
  • 1987: Amsterdam
  • 1988: Berlin
  • 1989: Paris
  • 1990: Glasgow
  • 1991: Dublin
  • 1992: Madrid
  • 1993: Antwerp
  • 1994: Lisbon
  • 1995: Luxembourg
  • 1996: Copenhagen
  • 1997: Thessaloniki
  • 1998: Stockholm
  • 1999: Weimar
  • 2000: Avignon, Bergen, Bologna, Brussels, Helsinki, Kraków, Prague, Reykjavík, Santiago de Compostela
  • 2001: Rotterdam, Porto
  • 2002: Bruges, Salamanca
  • 2003: Graz
  • 2004: Genoa, Lille
  • 2005: Cork
  • 2006: Patras
  • 2007: Sibiu, Luxembourg, Greater Region
  • 2008: Liverpool, Stavanger
  • 2009: Vilnius Linz
  • 2010: Essen (representing the Ruhr), Istanbul, Pécs
  • 2011: Turku, Tallinn
  • 2012: Guimarães, Maribor
  • 2013 Marseille, Košice
  • 2014: Umeå, Riga [4]
  • 2015: Mons, Plzeň
  • 2016: San Sebastián, Wrocław[5]
  • 2017: Aarhus,[6] Paphos
  • 2018: Malta, Netherlands
  • 2019: Matera, Italy

Simboles[edita | edita la fonte]

Notas[edita | edita la fonte]

  1. I am talking about the common tradition of Christianity which has made Europe what it is, and about the common cultural elements which this common Christianity has brought with it. If Asia were converted to Christianity tomorrow, it would not thereby become a part of Europe. It is in Christianity that our arts have developed; it is in Christianity that the laws of Europe have--until recently--been rooted. It is against a background of Christianity that all our thought has significance. An individual European may not believe that the Christian Faith is true, and yet what he says, and makes, and does, will all spring out of his heritage of Christian culture and depend upon that culture for its meaning. Only a Christian culture could have produced a Voltaire or a Nietzsche. I do not believe that the culture of Europe could survive the complete disappearance of the Christian Faith.[. . .] The Western World has its unity in this heritage, in Christianity and in the ancient civilisations of Greece, Rome, and Israel, from which, owing to two thousand years of Christianity, we trace our descent.

Referes[edita | edita la fonte]

  1. (2015) A Concise History of Modern Europe: Liberty, Equality, Solidarity, Rowman & Littlefield, p. 2.
  2. Cf. Berting (2006:51).
  3. Cederman (2001:2) remarks: "Given the absence of an explicit legal definition and the plethora of competing identities, it is indeed hard to avoid the conclusion that Europe is an essentially contested concept." Cf. also Davies (1996:15); Berting (2006:51).
  4. Cf. Jordan-Bychkov (2008:13), Davies (1996:15), Berting (2006:51-56).
  5. K. Bochmann (1990) L'idée d'Europe jusqu'au XXè siècle, quoted in Berting (2006:52). Cf. Davies (1996:15): "No two lists of the main constituents of European civilization would ever coincide. But many items have always featured prominently: from the roots of the Christian world in Greece, Rome and Judaism to modern phenomena such as the Enlightenment, modernization, romanticism, nationalism, liberalism, imperialism, totalitarianism."
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Berting, 2006
  7. Selected T.S. Eliot on Tradition, Poetry, Faith, and Culture
  8. Model:Cite news
  9. Rivadavia, Eduardo. "[[[:Model:Allmusic]] allmusic ((( New Wave of British Heavy Metal '79 Revisited - Overview )))]."
  10. Model:Cite news
  11. December 28, 1895.
  12. Cahiers du cinéma, n°hors-série, Paris, April 2000, p. 32 (cf. also Histoire des communications, 2011, p. 10.).
  13. Model:Cite news
  14. http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_225_report_en.pdf
  15. Model:Citation The question asked was "Do you consider yourself to be...?" With a card showing: Catholic, Orthodox, Protestant, Other Christian, Jewish, Muslim, Sikh, Buddhist, Hindu, Atheist, and Non-believer/Agnostic. Space was given for Other (SPONTANEOUS) and DK. Jewish, Sikh, Buddhist, Hindu did not reach the 1% threshold.
  16. Religions in Global Society - Page 146, Peter Beyer - 2006
  17. Cambridge University Historical Series, An Essay on Western Civilization in Its Economic Aspects, p.40: Hebraism, like Hellenism, has been an all-important factor in the development of Western Civilization; Judaism, as the precursor of Christianity, has indirectly had had much to do with shaping the ideals and morality of western nations since the christian era.
  18. Caltron J.H Hayas, Christianity and Western Civilization (1953),Stanford University Press, p.2: That certain distinctive features of our Western civilization — the civilization of western Europe and of America— have been shaped chiefly by Judaeo - Graeco - Christianity, Catholic and Protestant.
  19. Horst Hutter, University of New York, Shaping the Future: Nietzsche's New Regime of the Soul And Its Ascetic Practices (2004), p.111:three mighty founders of Western culture, namely Socrates, Jesus, and Plato.
  20. Fred Reinhard Dallmayr, Dialogue Among Civilizations: Some Exemplary Voices (2004), p.22: Western civilization is also sometimes described as "Christian" or "Judaeo- Christian" civilization.
  21. Dawson, Christopher (1961). Crisis in Western Education, reprint edició, p. 108. ISBN 978-0-8132-1683-6.
  22. Koch, Carl (1994). The Catholic Church: Journey, Wisdom, and Mission, Early Middle Ages: St. Mary's Press. ISBN 978-0-88489-298-4.
  23. Dawson, Christopher (1961). Crisis in Western Education, reprint edició. ISBN 978-0-8132-1683-6.
  24. Dawson, Christopher (1961). Crisis in Western Education, reprint edició, p. 108. ISBN 9780813216836.
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  28. 28.0 28.1 Discrimination in the European Union in 2012 - T98 and T99. Era de sita: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Special Eurobarometer 393" defined multiple times with different content
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  30. EVS Luxembourg 2008 CEPS/INSTEAD
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  35. Kirchenaustritte gingen 2012 um elf Prozent zurück
  36. 36.0 36.1 2011 Hungary Census Report
  37. Census 2002 "population by religions"
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  41. Model:Cite news
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  53. 2002 Census Results. p. 132
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  73. http://www.pewforum.org/uploadedfiles/Topics/Demographics/Muslimpopulation.pdf Islam in Europe states 3.2% Muslims in European Union, but non-European Union countries harbour even more Muslims so percents go to about 5.2%.
  74. "Table: Muslim Population by Country." PEW Research Centre.
  75. Alice Bertha Gomme, Traditional Games of England, Scotland, and Ireland. Volume 2, 1898
  76. NRA-rounders.co.uk History of Rounders Model:Wayback

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