Adolf Hitler

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Adolf Hitler
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S33882, Adolf Hitler retouched.jpg
Führer de Deutxland
Periodo de governa: 2 agosto 1934-30 april 1945
Presedor: Paul von Hindenburg
Seguor: Karl Dönitz
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Informa personal
Data de nase: 20 april 1889
Loca de nase: Braunau am Inn
Data de mori: 30 april 1945
Loca de mori: Berlin
Spos:
Profesa: Politiciste, soldato, depintor, scrivor political, revoluinte e statisticiste
Partito political: Partito Republiciste

Adolf Hitler ia es la presidente de Deutxland entre 1933 e 1945. El ia es la xef de la Partito Sosialiste Nasional de Laborores Deutx o Partito Nazi, e la gidor de la Deutxland Nazi. La ideolojia de sua governa ia es fundida en razisme, antiiudisme e militarisme. El ia gida Deutxland en la Gera Mundal Du, cual el ia comensa con intende de reali sua projeta de estende Deutxland tra Europa.

En 1919, Hitler ia deveni un membro de la Partito de Laborores Deutx, la presedor de la Partito Nazi, e ia deveni la xef en 1921. En 1923, pos la colpa de stato en la bireria Bürgerbräukeller de Munchen, Hitler ia es enviada a prison per sinco anios par la Putsch de Munchen. En prison, el ia scrive la parte prima de sua libro "Mea luta" (Mein Kampf) en cual el ia descrive sua ideolojia con alga elementos autobiografial. A oto menses plu tarda, en 1924, el ia parti de prison e ia oteni suporta poplal per loda de pangermanisme, anti-iudisme e anti-comunisme, esplotante sua talento per parla publica, propaganda e consentra coletiva con multe simbolisme.

On ia nomi el canselor imperal (Reichskanzler) en janero 1933, e an un anio plu tarda, pos la mori de la presidente Paul von Hindenburg, el ia proclama se Führer ("gidor"), oteninte la controla asoluta de la stato deutx. El ia transforma la Republica de Weimar a la Reich Tre e ia governa con un partito fundida sola en la autocratia de la ideolojia nazi.

Sua ojeto ia es institui un Ordina Nova fundida sur la supremia de Deutxland nazi en Europa. Sua politica interna e esterna ia ave la ojeto de prende la Lebensraum ("spasio per vive") per la popla germanica. El ia promove la rearma de Deutxland e la invade de Polsca par la Wehrmacht a 1 setembre 1939, cual ia inisia la Gera Mundal Du. Con esta atas, Hitler ia viole la Trata de Versailles de 1919 cual ia institui la esijes de pas pos la Gera Mundal Un.

Biografia[edita | edita la fonte]

Anios prima[edita | edita la fonte]

Adolf Hitler ia nase en un familia catolica en 20 april 1889 en Braunau am Inn, un vileta prosima a Linz en la provinse de Osteraic Alta, no multe distante de la frontera deutx, en lo ce alora ia es la Impero Osteraic-Magiar. El ia es la fio cuatro de ses (esente la otra Gustav, Ida, Otto, Edmund e Paula) ma sola Adolf e Paula ia ariva asta maturia). Sua padre, Aloys Shicklgruber (renomida en 1876 Aloys Hitler) ia es un ajente de duanas. Sua madre, Klara Pölzl, ia es la spos tre de Aloys e ambos ia desende de la mesma arbor jenealojial. La nom familial orijinal de sua familia ia es 'Hiedler' cual ia deriva a 'Hitler' probable par causa de un era fonetical en la rejistra cuando Aloys ia reprende sua nom familial padral.

Adolese en Wien e Munchen[edita | edita la fonte]

En universia, Adolf Hitler ia es stonada par la testos pangermanica de la profesor Leopold Poetsch ci ia ave un influe notable en el.

Hitler ia respeta sua madre ma ia ave problemes con sua padre car los no ia comparte ideas political e la padre ia no lasa el deveni artiste. Alois Hitler ia vole sua fio ta ave sua mesma labora ma Hitler ia es interesada en depinta e arciteta e sua desira ia es deveni un depintor famosa.

En 1907, Hitler ia abandona Linz e vade a Wien, finansiada par beneficas per orfanes e sua madre. El ia es rejetada du veses per entra en la Academia de artes bela de Wien car sua depintas ia es de construidas e no ia ave animales o move. On ia sujesta el atenta studia arciteta, ma el no ia pote entra en la Academia car el no ia ave educa de liseo. En 21 desembre 1907 sua madre ia mori con 47 anios de canser de peto. En 1909 Hitler no ia ave mone e ia labora como laboror casual e depintante e vendente depintas con acuarela de la vides de Wien.

En sua tempo en Wien el ia xasa un pasion cresente per du interesas: arciteta e musica, vadente a des teatrales en Lohengrin, sua opera favoreda de Wagner.

Gera Mundal Un[edita | edita la fonte]

En agosto 1914, en la comensa de la gera mundal un, Hitler ia vive en Munchen e ia enscrive nonobligante en la Armada Baieres. Seguente un reporta de 1924 par la autorias baieres, permete Hitler servi ia es serta un era manejal, car el ia es un sitadan osteraices, e el ta debe reveni a Osteraic. El ia servi como mesajor en la Frente Ueste en Frans e Beljia, esente la dui de sua tempo en la xeferia rejimental en Fournes-en-Weppes. El ia es presente en la batalia un de Ypres, en la batalia de Somme, en la batalia de Arras e en la batalia de Passchendaele, esente ferida en Somme. El ia es decorada par sua coraje, resetante la Crus de Fero, Clase Du, en 2 desembre 1914 e la Crus de Fero, Clase Un, en 4 agosto 1918, un decora a poca veses donada a algun de sua grado. En otobre 1916 el ia es ferida en sua gamba, cuando un cartux ia esplota en la buncer de la mesajores. Pos du menses en ospital en Beelitz, el ia reveni a la batalia en 5 marto 1917.

En 15 otobre 1918, el ia deveni sieca tempal par causa de un ataca con gas mostarda e ia es moveda a la ospital en Pasewalk. Hitler ia espresa ce, con acel esperia, cuando el ia estrae la banda de sua oios, el ia descovre ce "la ojeto de mea vive es oteni la salva de Deutxland". Esta esperia ia inspira el per scrive la poesia "Sieca" en 14 novembre 1918. Ala, el ia reseta la nova de la defeta de Deutxland e, seguente sua propre nara, el ia sufri un ataca du de siecia.

Hitler ia descrive la gera como "la plu grande de tota esperias" e ia es lodada par sua ofisiores par sua coraje. El ia es xocada par la capitulation de Deutxland en novembre 1918. Como multe otra nasionalistes deutx, Hitler ia apoia la Dolchstoßlegende, cual ia mostra ce la armada deutx, sin defeta en la batalia, ia es colpada con cotel en la dorso par la iudis, la gidores sivil e la marxistes (pos nomida "la criminores de novembre). Estas, ia sabota la armada deutx con greves en la fabricerias de armas.

La Trata de Versailles ia declara Deutxland como la sola culpable de la gera mundal un (como ia dise la article 231) e ia pone punis economial multe forte per Deutxland como ance la abandona de varia teritorios e un desmilitari de la area de Rhine. En la negosia, varia controversias ia apare par la vole de pasi de la esuan Wilson e la desira de venja de la franses Georges Clemenceau.La reconsilia no ia es entre la ojetos de Britan e Frans car, de la sentenio 19, Deutxland ia compete con los per la ejemonia en Europa e la colonias en Africa e Asia. La trata ia es considerada un vergonia par la deutxes e un elemento importante en la crea de las demandas sosial e political demandada par Hitler sua Partito Sosialiste Nasional de Laborores Deutx per ariva a la potia.

Comensa en politica[edita | edita la fonte]

Pos la gera mundal un, Hitler ia resta en la armada. El ia la cursos sur "pensa nasional" organizada par la Departe de Educa e Propaganda de la grupo baieres de la Reuchswehr. Un ojeto de esta grupo era trova la culpables vera de la defeta deutx e, seguente los, ia es la iudis, la comunistes e la libralistes.

En julio 1919, el ia es nomida Verbindungsmann (intelligence agent) de un Aufklärungskommando (reconnaissance unit) de la Reichswehr, asiniada a influe otra soldatos e infiltra la Partito de Laborores Deutx (DAP). El ia conose Dietrich Eckhart, un de la fundores de la partito e membro de la Sosia Thule ci, en un encontra en 12 setembre 1919, ia es impresada par la retorica de Hitler. El ia dona a Hitler un copia de sua libreta "Mea velia political", cual ia ataca la iudis, la capitalistes e la marxistes. Ance, Eckart ia deveni un mentor de Hitler, cambiante ideas e introduinte el a la sosia de Múnich. Seguente ordinas de sua superiores, el ia uni la partito, cual ia cambia sua nom a Partito Sosialiste Nasional de Laborores Deutx (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei). Hitler ia desinia la logo de la partito con un suastica en un sirculo blanca sur un fondo roja.









In June 1921, while Hitler and Eckart were on a fundraising trip to Berlin, a mutiny broke out within the NSDAP in Munich. Members of its executive committee wanted to merge with the rival German Socialist Party (DSP).Model:Sfn Hitler returned to Munich on 11 July and angrily tendered his resignation. The committee members realised that the resignation of their leading public figure and speaker would mean the end of the party.Model:Sfn Hitler announced he would rejoin on the condition that he would replace Drexler as party chairman, and that the party headquarters would remain in Munich.Model:Sfn The committee agreed, and he rejoined the party on 26 July as member 3,680. Hitler continued to face some opposition within the NSDAP: Opponents of Hitler in the leadership had Hermann Esser expelled from the party, and they printed 3,000 copies of a pamphlet attacking Hitler as a traitor to the party.Model:SfnModel:Efn In the following days, Hitler spoke to several packed houses and defended himself and Esser, to thunderous applause. His strategy proved successful, and at a special party congress on 29 July, he was granted absolute powers as party chairman, replacing Drexler, by a vote of 533Model:NbsptoModel:Nbsp1.Model:Sfn

Hitler's vitriolic beer hall speeches began attracting regular audiences. He became adept at using populist themes, including the use of scapegoats, who were blamed for his listeners' economic hardships.Model:SfnModel:SfnModel:Sfn Hitler used personal magnetism and an understanding of crowd psychology to his advantage while engaged in public speaking.Model:SfnModel:Sfn Historians have noted the hypnotic effect of his rhetoric on large audiences, and of his eyes in small groups.Model:Sfn Algis Budrys recalled the crowd noise and behavior when Hitler appeared in a 1936 parade; some in the audience writhed and rolled on the ground or experienced fecal incontinence.Model:Sfn Alfons Heck, a former member of the Hitler Youth, recalled a similar experience: Model:Quote

Early followers included Rudolf Hess, former air force ace Hermann Göring, and army captain Ernst Röhm. Röhm became head of the Nazis' paramilitary organisation, the Sturmabteilung (SA, "Stormtroopers"), which protected meetings and attacked political opponents. A critical influence on Hitler's thinking during this period was the Aufbau Vereinigung,Model:Sfn a conspiratorial group of White Russian exiles and early National Socialists. The group, financed with funds channelled from wealthy industrialists, introduced Hitler to the idea of a Jewish conspiracy, linking international finance with Bolshevism.Model:Sfn

Beer Hall Putsch and Landsberg Prison[edita | edita la fonte]

Model:Main

Defendants in the Beer Hall Putsch trial. From left to right: Pernet, Weber, Frick, Kiebel, Ludendorff, Hitler, Bruckner, Röhm, and Wagner.

In 1923 Hitler enlisted the help of World War I General Erich Ludendorff for an attempted coup known as the "Beer Hall Putsch". The NSDAP used Italian Fascism as a model for their appearance and policies. Hitler wanted to emulate Benito Mussolini's "March on Rome" of 1922 by staging his own coup in Bavaria, to be followed by a challenge to the government in Berlin. Hitler and Ludendorff sought the support of Staatskommissar (state commissioner) Gustav Ritter von Kahr, Bavaria's de facto ruler. However, Kahr, along with Police Chief Hans Ritter von Seisser and Reichswehr General Otto von Lossow, wanted to install a nationalist dictatorship without Hitler.Model:Sfn

On 8 November 1923 Hitler and the SA stormed a public meeting of 3,000 people organised by Kahr in the Bürgerbräukeller, a beer hall in Munich. Interrupting Kahr's speech, he announced that the national revolution had begun and declared the formation of a new government with Ludendorff.Model:Sfn Retiring to a back room, Hitler, with handgun drawn, demanded and got the support of Kahr, Seisser, and Lossow.Model:Sfn Hitler's forces initially succeeded in occupying the local Reichswehr and police headquarters, but Kahr and his cohorts quickly withdrew their support. Neither the army, nor the state police, joined forces with Hitler.Model:Sfn The next day, Hitler and his followers marched from the beer hall to the Bavarian War Ministry to overthrow the Bavarian government, but police dispersed them.Model:Sfn Sixteen NSDAP members and four police officers were killed in the failed coup.Model:Sfn

Dust jacket of Mein Kampf (1926–28 edition)

Hitler fled to the home of Ernst Hanfstaengl and by some accounts contemplated suicide.Model:Sfn He was depressed but calm when arrested on 11 November 1923 for high treason.Model:Sfn His trial before the special People's Court in Munich began in February 1924,Model:Sfn and Alfred Rosenberg became temporary leader of the NSDAP. On 1 April, Hitler was sentenced to five years' imprisonment at Landsberg Prison.Model:Sfn There, he received friendly treatment from the guards, and was allowed mail from supporters and regular visits by party comrades. Pardoned by the Bavarian Supreme Court, he was released from jail on 20 December 1924, against the state prosecutor's objections.Model:Sfn Including time on remand, Hitler served just over one year in prison.Model:Sfn

While at Landsberg, Hitler dictated most of the first volume of Mein Kampf (My Struggle; originally entitled Four and a Half Years of Struggle against Lies, Stupidity, and Cowardice) to his deputy, Rudolf Hess.Model:Sfn The book, dedicated to Thule Society member Dietrich Eckart, was an autobiography and exposition of his ideology. The book laid out Hitler's plans for transforming German society into one based on race. Some passages imply genocide.Model:Sfn Published in two volumes in 1925 and 1926, it sold 228,000 copies between 1925 and 1932. One million copies were sold in 1933, Hitler's first year in office.Model:Sfn

Shortly before Hitler was eligible for parole, the Bavarian government attempted to have him deported back to Austria.Model:Sfn The Austrian federal chancellor rejected the request on the specious grounds that his service in the German Army made his Austrian citizenship void.Model:Sfn In response, Hitler formally renounced his Austrian citizenship on 7 April 1925.Model:Sfn

Rebuilding the NSDAP[edita | edita la fonte]

At the time of Hitler's release from prison, politics in Germany had become less combative and the economy had improved, limiting Hitler's opportunities for political agitation. As a result of the failed Beer Hall Putsch, the NSDAP and its affiliated organisations were banned in Bavaria. In a meeting with the Prime Minister of Bavaria Heinrich Held on 4 January 1925, Hitler agreed to respect the state's authority and promised that he would seek political power only through the democratic process. The meeting paved the way for the ban on the NSDAP to be lifted on 16 February.Model:Sfn However, after an inflammatory speech he gave on 27 February, Hitler was barred from public speaking by the Bavarian authorities, a ban that remained in place until 1927.Model:SfnModel:Sfn To advance his political ambitions in spite of the ban, Hitler appointed Gregor Strasser, Otto Strasser and Joseph Goebbels to organise and grow the NSDAP in northern Germany. Gregor Strasser steered a more independent political course, emphasising the socialist elements of the party's programme.Model:Sfn

The stock market in the United States crashed on 24 October 1929. The impact in Germany was dire: millions were thrown out of work and several major banks collapsed. Hitler and the NSDAP prepared to take advantage of the emergency to gain support for their party. They promised to repudiate the Versailles Treaty, strengthen the economy and provide jobs.Model:Sfn

Rise to power[edita | edita la fonte]

Model:Main

NSDAP election resultsModel:Sfn
Election Total votes % votes Reichstag seats Notes
Model:DtsMay 1924 Model:Number table sorting Model:Number table sorting Model:Number table sorting Hitler in prison
Model:DtsDecember 1924 Model:Number table sorting Model:Number table sorting Model:Number table sorting Hitler released from prison
Model:DtsMay 1928 Model:Number table sorting Model:Number table sorting Model:Number table sorting  
Model:DtsSeptember 1930 Model:Number table sorting Model:Number table sorting Model:Number table sorting After the financial crisis
Model:DtsJuly 1932 Model:Number table sorting Model:Number table sorting Model:Number table sorting After Hitler was candidate for presidency
Model:DtsNovember 1932 Model:Number table sorting Model:Number table sorting Model:Number table sorting  
Model:DtsMarch 1933 Model:Number table sorting Model:Number table sorting Model:Number table sorting Only partially free during Hitler's term as chancellor of Germany

Brüning administration[edita | edita la fonte]

The Great Depression provided a political opportunity for Hitler. Germans were ambivalent about the parliamentary republic, which faced challenges from right- and left-wing extremists. The moderate political parties were increasingly unable to stem the tide of extremism, and the German referendum of 1929 helped to elevate Nazi ideology.Model:Sfn The elections of September 1930 resulted in the break-up of a grand coalition and its replacement with a minority cabinet. Its leader, chancellor Heinrich Brüning of the Centre Party, governed through emergency decrees from President Paul von Hindenburg. Governance by decree became the new norm and paved the way for authoritarian forms of government.Model:Sfn The NSDAP rose from obscurity to win 18.3 perModel:Nbspcent of the vote and 107 parliamentary seats in the 1930 election, becoming the second-largest party in parliament.Model:Sfn

Hitler and NSDAP treasurer Franz Xaver Schwarz at the dedication of the renovation of the Palais Barlow on Brienner Straße in Munich into the Brown House headquarters, December 1930

Hitler made a prominent appearance at the trial of two Reichswehr officers, Lieutenants Richard Scheringer and Hans Ludin, in late 1930. Both were charged with membership in the NSDAP, at that time illegal for Reichswehr personnel.Model:Sfn The prosecution argued that the NSDAP was an extremist party, prompting defence lawyer Hans Frank to call on Hitler to testify.Model:Sfn On 25 September 1930, Hitler testified that his party would pursue political power solely through democratic elections,Model:Sfn which won him many supporters in the officer corps.Model:Sfn

Brüning's austerity measures brought little economic improvement and were extremely unpopular.Model:Sfn Hitler exploited this by targeting his political messages specifically at people who had been affected by the inflation of the 1920s and the Depression, such as farmers, war veterans, and the middle class.Model:Sfn

Although Hitler had terminated his Austrian citizenship in 1925, he did not acquire German citizenship for almost seven years. This meant that he was stateless, legally unable to run for public office, and still faced the risk of deportation.Model:Sfn On 25 February 1932, the interior minister of Brunswick, Dietrich Klagges, who was a member of the NSDAP, appointed Hitler as administrator for the state's delegation to the Reichsrat in Berlin, making Hitler a citizen of Brunswick,Model:Sfn and thus of Germany.Model:Sfn

Hitler ran against Hindenburg in the 1932 presidential elections. A 27 January 1932 speech to the Industry Club in Düsseldorf won him support from many of Germany's most powerful industrialists.Model:Sfn Hindenburg had support from various nationalist, monarchist, Catholic, and republican parties, and some Social Democrats. Hitler used the campaign slogan "Hitler über Deutschland" ("Hitler over Germany"), a reference to his political ambitions and his campaigning by aircraft.Model:Sfn He was one of the first politicians to use aircraft travel for political purposes, and used it effectively.Model:SfnModel:Sfn Hitler came in second in both rounds of the election, garnering more than 35 perModel:Nbspcent of the vote in the final election. Although he lost to Hindenburg, this election established Hitler as a strong force in German politics.Model:Sfn